1   Usage

1.1   The ndmap object

The pixell library supports manipulation of sky maps that are represented as 2-dimensional grids of rectangular pixels. The supported projection and pixelization schemes are a subset of the schemes supported by FITS conventions. In addition, we provide support for a `plain’ coordinate system, corresponding to a Cartesian plane with identically shaped pixels (useful for true flat-sky calculations).

In pixell, a map is encapsulated in an ndmap, which combines two objects: a numpy array (of at least two dimensions) whose two trailing dimensions correspond to two coordinate axes of the map, and a wcs object that specifies the World Coordinate System. The wcs component is an instance of Astropy’s astropy.wcs.wcs.WCS class. The combination of the wcs and the shape of the numpy array completely specifies the footprint of a map of the sky, and is called the geometry. This library helps with manipulation of ndmap objects in ways that are aware of and preserve the validity of the wcs information.

1.1.1   ndmap as an extension of numpy.ndarray

The ndmap class extends the numpy.ndarray class, and thus has all of the usual attributes (.shape, .dtype, etc.) of an ndarray. It is likely that an ndmap object can be used in any functions that usually operate on an ndarray; this includes the usual numpy array arithmetic, slicing, broadcasting, etc.

>>> from pixell import enmap
>>> #... code that resulted in an ndmap called imap
>>> print(imap.shape, imap.wcs)
(100, 100) :{cdelt:[1,1],crval:[0,0],crpix:[0,0]}
>>> imap_extract = imap[:50,:50]   # A view of one corner of the map.
>>> imap_extract *= 1e6            # Re-calibrate. (Also affects imap!)

An ndmap must have at least two dimensions. The two right-most axes represent celestial coordinates (typically Declination and Right Ascension). Maps can have arbitrary number of leading dimensions, but many of the pixell CMB-related tools interpret 3D arrays with shape (ncomp,Ny,Nx) as representing Ny x Nx maps of intensity, polarization Q and U Stokes parameters, in that order.

Note that wcs information is correctly adjusted when the array is sliced; for example the object returned by imap[:50,:50] is a view into the imap data attached to a new wcs object that correctly describes the footprint of the extracted pixels.

Apart from all the numpy functionality, ndmap comes with a host of additional attributes and functions that utilize the WCS information.

1.1.2   ndmap.wcs

The wcs information describes the correspondence between celestial coordinates (typically the Right Ascension and Declination in the Equatorial system) and the pixel indices in the two right-most axes. In some projections, such as CEA or CAR, rows (and columns) of the pixel grid will often follow lines of constant Declination (and Right Ascension). In other projections, this will not be the case.

The WCS system is very flexible in how celestial coordinates may be associated with the pixel array. By observing certain conventions, we can make life easier for users of our maps. We recommend the following:

  • The first pixel, index [0,0], should be the one that you would normally display (on a monitor or printed figure) in the lower left-hand corner of the image. The pixel indexed by [0,1] should appear to the right of [0,0], and pixel [1,0] should be above pixel [0,0]. (This recommendation originates in FITS standards documentation.)
  • When working with large maps that are not near the celestial poles, Right Ascension should be roughly horizontal and Declination should be roughly vertical. (It should go without saying that you should also present information “as it would appear on the sky”, i.e. with Right Ascension increasing to the left!)

The examples in the rest of this document are designed to respect these two conventions.

TODO: I’ve listed below common operations that would be useful to demonstrate here. Finish this! (See 2   Reference for a dump of all member functions)

1.2   Creating an ndmap

To create an empty ndmap, call the enmap.zeros or enmap.empty functions and specify the map shape as well as the pixelization information (the WCS). Here is a basic example:

>>> from pixell import enmap, utils
>>> box = np.array([[-5,10],[5,-10]]) * utils.degree
>>> shape,wcs = enmap.geometry(pos=box,res=0.5 * utils.arcmin,proj='car')
>>> imap = enmap.zeros((3,) + shape, wcs=wcs)

In this example we are requesting a pixelization that spans from -5 to +5 in declination, and +10 to -10 in Right Ascension. Note that we need to specify the Right Ascension coordinates in decreasing order, or the map, when we display it with pixel [0,0] in the lower left-hand corner, will not have the usual astronomical orientation.

For more information on designing the geometry, see 1.10   Building a map geometry.

1.3   Passing maps through functions that act on numpy arrays

You can also perform arithmetic with and use functions that act on numpy arrays. In most situations, functions that usually act on numpy arrays will return an ndmap when an ndmap is passed to it in lieu of a numpy array. In those situations where the WCS information is removed, one can always add it back like this:

>>> from pixell import enmap
>>> #... code that resulted in an ndmap called imap
>>> print(imap.shape, imap.wcs)
(100, 100) :{cdelt:[1,1],crval:[0,0],crpix:[0,0]}
>>> omap = some_function(imap)
>>> print(omap.wcs)
Traceback (most recent call last):
AttributeError: 'numpy.ndarray' object has no attribute 'wcs'
>>> # Uh oh, the WCS information was removed by some_function
>>> omap = enmap.enmap(omap,wcs) # restore the wcs
>>> omap = enmap.samewcs(omap,imap) # another way to restore the wcs

1.4   Reading maps from disk

An entire map in FITS or HDF format can be loaded using read_map, which is found in the module pixell.enmap. The enmap module contains the majority of map manipulation functions.

>>> from pixell import enmap
>>> imap = enmap.read_map("map_on_disk.fits")

Alternatively, one can select a rectangular region specified through its bounds using the box argument,

>>> import numpy as np
>>> from pixell import utils
>>> dec_min = -5 ; ra_min = -5 ; dec_max = 5 ; ra_max = 5
>>> # All coordinates in pixell are specified in radians
>>> box = np.array([[dec_min,ra_min],[dec_max,ra_max])) * utils.degree
>>> imap = enmap.read_map("map_on_disk.fits",box=box)

Note the convention used to define coordinate boxes in pixell. To learn how to use a pixel coordinate box or a numpy slice, please read the docstring for read_map.

1.5   Inspecting a map

An ndmap has all the attributes of a ndarray numpy array. In particular, you can inspect its shape.

>>> print(imap.shape)

Here, imap consists of three maps each with 500 pixels along the Y axis and 1000 pixels along the X axis. One can also inspect the WCS of the map,

>>> print(imap.wcs)

Above, we learn that the map is represented in the CAR projection system and what the WCS attributes are.

1.6   Selecting regions of the sky

If you know the pixel coordinates of the sub-region you would like to select, the cleanest thing to do is to slice it like a numpy array.

>>> imap = enmap.zeros((1000,1000))
>>> print(imap.shape)
>>> omap = imap[100:200,50:80]
>>> print(omap.shape)
(100, 30)

However, if you only know the physical coordinate bounding box in radians, you can use the submap function.

>>> box = np.array([[dec_min,ra_min],[dec_max,ra_max]]) # in radians
>>> omap = imap.submap(box)
>>> omap = enmap.submap(imap,box) # an alternative way

1.7   Relating pixels to the sky

The geometry specified through shape and wcs contains all the information to get properties of the map related to the sky. pixell always specifies the Y coordinate first. So a sky position is often in the form (dec,ra) where dec could be the declination and ra could be the right ascension in radians in the equatorial coordinate system.

The pixel corresponding to ra=180,dec=20 can be obtained like

>>> dec = 20 ; ra = 180
>>> coords = np.deg2rad(np.array((dec,ra)))
>>> ypix,xpix = enmap.sky2pix(shape,wcs,coords)

Note that you don’t need to pass each dec,ra separately. You can pass a large number of coordinates for a vectorized conversion. In this case coords should have the shape (2,Ncoords), where Ncoords is the number of coordinates you want to convert, with the first row containing declination and the second row containing right ascension. Also, the returned pixel coordinates are in general fractional.

Similarly, pixel coordinates can be converted to sky coordinates

>>> ypix = 100 ; xpix = 300
>>> pixes = np.array((ypix,xpix))
>>> dec,ra = enmap.pix2sky(shape,wcs,pixes)

with similar considerations as above for passing a large number of coordinates.

Using the enmap.posmap function, you can get a map of shape (2,Ny,Nx) containing the coordinate positions in radians of each pixel of the map.

>>> posmap = imap.posmap()
>>> dec = posmap[0] # declination in radians
>>> ra = posmap[1] # right ascension in radians

Using the enmap.pixmap function, you can get a map of shape (2,Ny,Nx) containing the integer pixel coordinates of each pixel of the map.

>>> pixmap = imap.pixmap()
>>> pixy = posmap[0]
>>> pixx = posmap[1]

Using the enmap.modrmap function, you can get a map of shape (Ny,Nx) containing the physical coordinate distance of each pixel from a given reference point specified in radians. If the reference point is unspecified, the distance of each pixel from the center of the map is returned.

>>> modrmap = imap.modrmap() # 2D map of distances from center

1.8   Fourier operations

Maps can be 2D Fourier-transformed for manipulation in Fourier space. The 2DFT of the (real) map is generally a complex ndmap with the same shape as the original map (unless a real transform function is used). To facilitate 2DFTs, there are functions that do the Fourier transforms themselves, and functions that provide metadata associated with such transforms.

Since an ndmap contains information about the physical extent of the map and the physical width of the pixels, the discrete frequencies corresponding to its numpy array need to be converted to physical wavenumbers of the map.

This is done by the laxes function, which returns the wavenumbers along the Y and X directions. The lmap function returns a map of all the (ly,lx) wavenumbers in each pixel of the Fourier-space map. The modlmap function returns the “modulus of lmap”, i.e. a map of the distances of each Fourier-pixel from (ly=0,lx=0).

You can perform a fast Fourier transform of an (…,Ny,Nx) dimensional ndmap to return an (…,Ny,Nx) dimensional complex map using enmap.fft and enmap.ifft (inverse FFT).

1.9   Filtering maps in Fourier space

A filter can be applied to a map in three steps:

  1. prepare a Fourier space filter kfilter
  2. Fourier transform the map imap to kmap
  3. multiply the filter and k-map
  4. inverse Fourier transform the result

1.10   Building a map geometry

You can create a geometry if you know what its bounding box and pixel size are:

>>> from pixell import enmap, utils
>>> box = np.array([[-5,10],[5,-10]]) * utils.degree
>>> shape,wcs = enmap.geometry(pos=box,res=0.5 * utils.arcmin,proj='car')

This creates a CAR geometry centered on RA=0d,DEC=0d with a width of 20 degrees, a height of 10 degrees, and a pixel size of 0.5 arcminutes.

You can create a full-sky geometry by just specifying the resolution:

>>> from pixell import enmap, utils
>>> shape,wcs = enmap.fullsky_geometry(res=0.5 * utils.arcmin,proj='car')

This creates a CAR geometry with pixel size of 0.5 arcminutes that wraps around the whole sky.

You can create a geometry that wraps around the full sky but does not extend everywhere in declination:

>>> shape,wcs = enmap.band_geometry(dec_cut=20*utils.degree, res=0.5 * utils.arcmin,proj='car')

This creates a CAR geometry with pixel size of 0.5 arcminutes that wraps around the whole sky but is limited to DEC=-20d to 20d. The following creates the same except with a declination extent from -60d to 30d.

>>> shape,wcs = enmap.band_geometry(dec_cut=np.array([-60,30])*utils.degree, res=0.5 * utils.arcmin,proj='car')

1.11   Resampling maps

1.12   Masking and windowing

1.13   Flat-sky diagnostic power spectra

1.14   Curved-sky operations

The resulting spherical harmonic alm coefficients of an SHT are stored in the same convention as with HEALPIX, so one can use healpy.almxfl to apply an isotropic filter to an SHT.

1.15   Reprojecting maps

1.16   Simulating maps